Incidence of Encephalitis in the Intensive Care Unit, a Tertiary Care Hospital, Pakistan: A 5-Year Retrospective Study [Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim]
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. Ahead of Print: TARD-62144 | DOI: 10.5152/TJAR.2019.62144  

Incidence of Encephalitis in the Intensive Care Unit, a Tertiary Care Hospital, Pakistan: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

Sonia Andleeb1, M.yasir Bari1, Inam Gill1, Sana Urooj2, Sidra Nausheen1
1Department of Intensive Care Unit, Aziz Fatimah Medical College and Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Anaethesiology, Dr. Ruth Pfau Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

Objective: Encephalitis is a disease that has a major impact on health systems worldwide in terms of mortality, morbidity and costs. Furthermore, it is a challenging disease for the treating physician, as the patient presentation varies, and not all patients present with typical complaints. In addition, if left untreated or if there is a delay in the treatment, the mortality rate due to encephalitis can increase. The incidence of encephalitis in Pakistan is scarce in the literature because, in most of cases, the specific cause is not evaluated due to lack of resources and also because the majority of cases are not reported. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and outcomes of encephalitis in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital intensive care unit in Pakistan.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the intensive care unit of the Aziz Fatimah Medical College and Hospital, Faisalabad. After obtaining the ethical approval, a total of 75 patients were found in the medical records with a confirmed diagnosis of encephalitis out of total 3,921 patients admitted to the intensive care unit in the 5-year period from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2018.

Results: The most common clinical presentation were seizures (64%) followed by headache (53%), irritability (29.3%) and hemiparesis (26.7%). Among all patients, 44 needed invasive ventilation, and 7 required non-invasive ventilation. In addition, the outcomes were variable.

Conclusion: The incidence of encephalitis was 1.9% in the 5-year period, and the mortality rate was 37.3%. Also, 6.7% patients improved without any complications.

Keywords: Encephalitis, incidence, outcome

Corresponding Author: Sonia Andleeb, Pakistan

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