Comparison of the Effects of Epidural Levobupivacaine with Tramadol or Morphine Addition on Postoperative Analgesia following Major Abdominal Surgery [Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim]
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2019; 47(4): 287-294 | DOI: 10.5152/TJAR.2019.00936  

Comparison of the Effects of Epidural Levobupivacaine with Tramadol or Morphine Addition on Postoperative Analgesia following Major Abdominal Surgery

Zeynep Türkoğlu1, Feride Karacaer2, Ebru Biricik2, Murat Ilgınel2, Hakkı Ünlügenç2
1Erdemli Public Hospital, Mersin, Turkey
2Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Çukurova University School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey

Objective: The study was designed to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of epidural tramadol or epidural morphine as adjuvant to levobupivacaine in major abdominal surgery.
Methods: Patients in ASA I-II group aged between 18 and 65 years were included in study. Epidural catheter was introduced. Patients were randomised into three groups to receive levobupivacaine (Group L), levobupivacaine+morphine (Group LM) and levobupivacaine+tramadol (Group LT). General anaesthesia was administered to all patients. The solution intended for Group L contained 25 mg 0.5% levobupivacaine+15 mL saline, that for Group LM contained 25 mg 0.5% levobupivacaine+14.5 mL salin+100 μg morphine and that for Group LT contained 25 mg 0.5% levobupivacaine+13 mL salin+100 mg tramadol, which was administered via epidural catheter as loading dose 30 min before the end of the operation. Patient-controlled analgesia device was connected to the epidural catheter to provide postoperative analgesia. Bolus dose was adjusted to 12 mg levobupivacaine in Group L, 12 mg levobupivacaine +1.2 mg morphine in Group LM and 12 mg levobupivacaine+12 mg tramadol in Group LT. Lock-out period was adjusted to 15 min in three groups. Quality of analgesia was evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale; administered and demand doses of levobupivacaine, morphine and tramadol were compared at 30 min, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h postoperatively.
Results: Visual Analogue Scale scores were significantly higher in Group L than Groups LM and LT. Nausea and vomiting observed in Group L were lesser than those in Groups LM and LT.
Conclusion: Continuous epidural analgesia using levobupivacaine combined with morphine or tramadol is an effective method for managing postoperative analgesia in major abdominal surgery.

Keywords: Analgesia, epidural patient-controlled, levobupivacaine, morphine, postoperative pain, tramadol


Zeynep Türkoğlu, Feride Karacaer, Ebru Biricik, Murat Ilgınel, Hakkı Ünlügenç. Comparison of the Effects of Epidural Levobupivacaine with Tramadol or Morphine Addition on Postoperative Analgesia following Major Abdominal Surgery. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2019; 47(4): 287-294

Corresponding Author: Zeynep Türkoğlu, Türkiye


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